Africa is a continent rich in natural resources such as oil, gold, timber, diamonds, platinum, uranium and chrome. It has the potential to feed itself and others but the scramble for Africa's riches has often led to mismanagement, environmental degradation, and in some instances, to conflict. A number of important developments are changing the dynamics related to natural resource management and exploitation in Africa. Among these is the determination of a number of African countries to move from a resource-dependent to a knowledge-based economy, leveraging the potential of science and technology to ensure better management and exploitation of resources. The aim is to explore a few pertinent issues in a manner that will lead to a better understanding of opportunities and challenges to harness S&T cooperation for sustainable development.